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Citing Sources of Information 引文及列明出處: APA Style

Recommended Resources

Website: 

Print book:

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. (Call number: Reference BF76.7 .P83 2020 )
  • Concise rules of APA style: the official APA style guide for students. (Call number: Reference BF76.7 .C66 2020)
  • Writing with style : APA style made easy. (Call number: Reference BF76.8 .S98 2014)

Examples - APA (7th)

 

In-text Citation Reference list
One author

Author's Last Name, Year of Publication

(Shotton, 1989) 

or

Shotton (1989)

 

 

 

 

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of Book. Publisher Name.

Shotton, M.A.(1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. Taylor & Francis.

 

Edition other than the first

Romer, D. (2012). Advanced macroeconomics (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Two authors

Both Author's Last Name, Year of Publication

(Christian & Griffiths, 2016)

or

Christian and Griffiths (2016)

Author #1's Last Name, Initial., & Author #2's Last Name, Initial. (Year of publication). Title of Book. Publisher.

Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decision. Henry Hold & Co.

Three or more authors

First Author's Last Name et al., Year of Publication

(Kalnay et al., 1996)

or

Kalnay et al.(1996)

1. Three to twenty authors

Author #1's Last Name, Initial, Author #2's Last Name, Initial, Author #3's Last Name,  Initial, Author #4's Last Name, Initial, Author #5's Last Name, Initial, Author #6's Last Name, Initial, Author #7's Last Name, Initial, Author #8's Last Name, Initial, Author #9's Last Name, Initial, Author #10's Last Name, Initial, Author #11's Last Name, Initial, Author #12's Last Name, Initial, Author #13's Last Name, Initial,Author #14's Last Name, Initial, Author #15's Last Name, Initial, Author #16's Last Name, Initial, Author #17's Last Name, Initial, Author #18's Last Name, Initial, Author #19's Last Name, Initial & Author #20's Last Name, Initial*. (Year of publication). Title of Book. Publisher.

*Provides surnames and initials for up to and including twenty authors. Before the last author name, put an ampersand (&).

e.g. Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen. J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K.C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., & Joseph, D. (1996)


2. Twenty-one or more authors

Author #1's Last Name, Initial, Author #2's Last Name, Initial, Author #3's Last Name, Initial, Author #4's Last Name, Initial, Author #5's Last Name, Initial, Author #6's Last Name, Initial, Author #7's Last Name, Initial, Author #8's Last Name, Initial, Author #9's Last Name, Initial, Author #10's Last Name, Initial, Author #11's Last Name, Initial, Author #12's Last Name, Initial, Author #13's Last Name, Initial,Author #14's Last Name, Initial, Author #15's Last Name, Initial, Author #16's Last Name, Initial, Author #17's Last Name, Initial, Author #18's Last Name, Initial, Author #19's Last Name, Initial,... Last Author Last Name, Initial*. (Year of publication). Title of Book. Publisher.

* Include the first 19 authors's name, insert an ellipsis (...) , then add the last author's name.

e.g. Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen. J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K.C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joseph, D. (1996).

Group author with abbreviation

Group Name, Abbreviation, Year of Publication

First citation:

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)

or

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)

Subsequent citations:

(NIMH, 2020)

or

NIMH (2020)

Group Author Name*. (Year of publication). Title of Book. Publisher Name.

*In the reference list, do not use the abbreviation. Spell out the full name of the group.

Group author without abbreviation

Group Name, Year of Publication

(Stanford University, 2020)

or

Stanford University (2020)

Group Author Name. (Year of publication). Title of Book. Publisher Name.
Chapter/section of edited book

Author's Last Name, Year of Publication

(McGuigan & Lehrer, 2007) or

McGuigan & Lehrer(2008)

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of chapter/section. In Editor Initials. Last Name  (Ed.*), Title of book. (edition/volume no**, pp. page range). Publisher.

McGuigan, F. J., & Lehrer, P. M. (2007). Progressive relaxation: Origins, principles, and clinical applications. In P. M. Lehrer, R.L. Woolfork, & W.E. Sime (Eds.), Principles and practice of stress management(3rd ed., pp. 57-87). Guilford Press.

 *Use plural (Eds.) if more than one editor. 

**If the book has an edition or volume number, list it before the page range.

In-text Citation Reference list

 

 

 

Author's Last Name, Year of Publication

 

(Madigan, 2019)

or

Madigan(1989)

You don't need to specify you have used an eBook if the content is the same as the print version. However, you should specify it is an eBook or audiobook if the content is different or abridged from the print copy.


Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication
). Title of Book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL or doi

Madigan, S. (2019). Narrative therapy (2nd ed.)[eBook edition]. American Psychology Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000131-000 

 

In-text Citation Reference list

Author Last Name, Year of publication

(Anderson, 2018)

or

Anderson(2008) 

Author Last Name, initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal . volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequence. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.

 

In-text Citation Reference list

Author Last Name, Year of publication 

(Herbst-Damm & Kulik, 2005)

or

Herbst-Damm and Kulik(2005)

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. DOI or URL.

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(1), 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

 

Format In-text Citation Reference list
Artwork in a museum or on a museum website

Artist Last Name, Year

(Delacroix, 1826-1827)

or

Delacroix (1826-1827)

 

(Wood, 1930)

or

Wood (1930)

Artist Last Name, initials. (Year). Title of the work. [Medium or format]. Museum Name, Museum Location.

Delacroix, E. (1826-1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

 

 

Artist Last Name, initials. (Year). Title of the work. [Medium or format]. Museum Name, Museum Location.URL.

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. https://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/6565

Infographic

Author Last Name, Year

(Rossman & Palmer, 2015)

or

Rossman and Palmer (2015) 

Author Last Name, initials. (Year). Title of the work. [Format]. Source. URL.

e.g. Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival. https://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2015/11/space-junk-infographic

Photograph

Photographer Last Name, Year

(McCurry, 1985)

or

McCurry (1985) 

Photographer Last Name, initials. (Year). Title of the work. [Format]. Source. URL.

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg

Format In-text Citation Reference list
Film or video

Director Last Name, Year

(Jackson, 2001)

or

Jackson(2001)

 

(Fosha & Levenson, 2017)

or

Fosha and Levenson (2017)

Director Last Name, initial. (Director). (Year of production). Title of the video. [Format]. Production Company.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

 

Host Last Name, initials. (Host). (Year of production). Title of the video. [Format]. URL.

Fosha, D. (Guest Expert), & Levenson, H. (Host). (2017). Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) supervision [Film; educational DVD]. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/pubs/videos/4310958.aspx

YouTube video or other streaming video

Uploader Last Name, Year

(Cutts, 2017) 

or

Cutts (2017)

 

(University of Oxford, 2018) 

or

University of Oxford (2018)

Uploader Last Name, initials. (Year, month date). Title of the video. [Format]. URL.

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/244405542.

 

 

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8.

 

In-text Citation Reference list

Author Last Name, Year of publication 

(Martin Lillie, 2016) or

Martin Lillie(2016)

Author Last Name, initials. (Year, Month Date*). Title of page. Site name. URL

If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.). 

Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/self-compassion-can-improve-your-resiliency/art-20267193

 

 

In-text Citation Reference list

Author Last Name, Year of publication 

(Huang et al., 2006) or

Huang et al. (2006)

Last Name, initials. & Last Name, initials. (Eds.). (Year). Title of Proceedings. Publisher. URL (if applicable)

Huang, S., Pierce, R., & Stamey, J. (Eds.). (2006). Proceedings of the 24th annual ACM international conference on the design of communication. ACM Digital Library. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1166324&picked=prox

 

 

In-text Citation Reference list

Author Last Name, Year of publication 

(APA Education, 2018)

or

APA Education (2018)

Twitter and IG

Author’s Last Name, Initials. [@username]. (Date). Title of post* [Description of audiovisuals]. Site name. URL

*Content of the post up to the first 20 words.
 

APA Education [@APAEducation] (2018, June 29). College students are forming mental-health clubs—and they’re making a difference @washingtonpost [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/apaeducation/status/1012810490530140161

More Examples

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Guide on "Avoiding Plagiarism"

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